About Tajikistan

General Information

Area: 142, 600 square kilometers
Population: about 9.145 million
State language: Tajik
Capital city: Dushanbe
The State Holiday: Day of Independence – September 9
Currency: Somoni
Symbolics: Flag of Tajikistan, Emblem of Tajikistan
Nationalities: Tajiks (79.9 %), Uzbeks (15.3%), Russians (1.1 %), Kyrgyz (1.1%), others (2.6%)
Climate: sharp continental
Natural resources: aluminum, coal, oil, gas, iron, zinc, antimony, mercury, gold, tin, tungsten, boron, carbonates, fluorite, precious and semiprecious stones
Major cities: Khujand, Bokhtar, Khorog, Kulyab, Penjikent
Major industries: mining metallurgy, water-power engineering, textile and clothing industries
Religion: Islam (Sunni and Shi'a), Orthodox Christianity
Time Zone: UTC +5
Internet Domain: .tj
President of the Republic of Tajikistan: Emomali Rahmon
Coordinates: 38°33'N 68°48'E (Dushanbe) 

Tajikistan—the country in the south-eastern part of Central Asia. Tajikistan is bordered on the west and north by Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, on the south by Afghanistan, and on the east by China. Total area of the territory of the Republic is 142.600 km2.

The length of state borders is 3000 km. The administrative structure includes: Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast, Khatlon Oblast, Sughd Oblast, Regions of Republican Subordination and Dushanbe.

The independence of Tajikistan was proclaimed on 9th of September 1991. The capital of the Republic is the city of Dushanbe.

Tajikistan is a typical mountainous country with absolute heights from 300 to 7495 m. 93% of its territory is occupied by mountains belonging to the highest mountain systems of Central Asia—Tien-Shan and Pamir. Many peaks in Tajikistan are among the highest in the world, rising to a maximum of 7,495m (24,590ft) at Ismoil Somoni Peak (formerly Peak Communism). Almost half of the territory of Tajikistan is situated at an altitude of over 3000m above sea level. The majority of the population and economic activities of Tajikistan are concentrated on 7% of its territory, in the valleys.

As of January 1, 2019, the population of Tajikistan was estimated to be 9.145 million people. The average annual population growth is about 2.5% per year.

Tajikistan is a major water source for Central Asia, and many wild and beautiful rivers flow across Tajikistan and along its borders, including the unruly Pyanj (which eventually becomes the Amu Darya) along the entire southern border with Afghanistan; the Syr Darya in the north, one of Central Asia's most important waterways; and the Vaksh, which flows from north to south from Kyrgyzstan to the Pyanj, and features the enormous scenic reservoir at Nurek, held back by the world's highest dam. Lakes include Lake Kara-Kol in Gorno-Badakhshan, a huge salty runoff lake in the middle of a vast breathtaking wilderness.

Political structure

Tajikistan is a Presidential Republic, in which the President is both head of State and the Government. Since 1994, Emomali Rakhmon has held this office. It is also a multi-party democracy, with parties sending candidates to a bi-cameral parliament. The Supreme Assembly (Majlisi Oli) includes the 63-seat Assembly of Representatives (Majlisi Namoyandagon), which meets year-round, and the 33-seat National Assembly (Majlisi Milli), which meets at least twice per year. The pro-government People's Democratic Party continued to control both houses of the parliament after the elections of 2005; having gained 52 of the 63 seats in the Assembly of Representatives.

Languages in Tajikistan

The Tajik language, or Tajiki, is a modern variety of Persian language spoken in Central Asia. An Indo-European language of the Iranian language group, most speakers of Tajik live in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, and Tajik is the official language of Tajikistan. In addition Uzbek is spoken in Uzbek communities, and many ethnic Tajiks speak Uzbek, these groups having a long shared history. Kyrgyz is spoken in high mountainous areas in the north and west. Russian is still spoken by most of the population as a common business and administrative language, an important link to the rest of the post-soviet nations. In the cities Russian is predominant.


Most Tajiks belong to the Islamic faith. One important aspect of religion in the country is that most people in Gorno-Badakhshan are Shi'a, comprising 15% of all Muslims; the other 85% are Sunni. There are also small communities of Orthodox Christian and Jewish believers as well. Tajiks are known for being devoutly religious, with most holding to traditional Islamic norms of prayer and fasting, etc. This creates in the country a different social atmosphere than that of its neighbors.

Capital Dushanbe, in the west of the country, is the economic, legal and transportation center of the country, in addition to being by far the largest city. Nearly the entire population of ethnic Russians and a surprisingly large number international workers live here. Most of Tajikistan's industrial base is also concentrated around Dushanbe. These days, it is a pleasant, slow-paced "garden" city, its streets lined with towering leafy plantain trees and large parks. Many upscale hotels and shops have appeared, and internet cafes are everywhere.

Public holidays

  • January 1 - New Year's Day
  • March 8 - International Women's Day
  • March 20-March 22 - Persian New Year (Navruz)
  • May 1 - International Labor Day
  • May 9 - Victory Day (WWII)
  • June 27 - National Reconciliation Day 
  • September 9 - Independence Day
  • November 6 - Constitution Day

Tajik Culture

The Culture of Tajikistan has developed over several thousand years. Historically, Tajiks and Persians come from very similar stock with a mutual language and are related as part of the larger group of Iranian peoples, though ancient towns such as Bukhara, Samarkand, Herat, Balkh and Khiva which are inhabited by a majority of Tajiks are not currently part of the country. The Tajiks' ancestors were from Scythian proto-Indo-European tribes who were nomads of the Eurasian steppes and were among the first to settle in Central Asia about 4000 years ago. The territory of Tajikistan has seen many conquests and cultural influences, including campaigns by the Persians and Alexander of Macedonia. Zoroaster, the founder of Zoroastrianism, was from the area, and the Arabs later introduced Islam beginning in the tenth century. The Soviet period dramatically changed the culture of the country, introducing western culture and art and attempting to suppress the Islamic faith.

National cuisine

Traditional Tajik cuisine has much in common with Persian cuisine, and features such dishes as kabuli plov, qabili plov, shashlik and sumanak. Traditional Tajik meals start with sweet dishes such as halva and tea, and then progress to soups and meat, before finishing with plov. Plov is also locally called "Osh". All meals are accompanied by Non, a type of flatbread common to Central Asia, also called lepyoshka. Other meals include Shurbo (meat and potato soup), Sambusa (samosa), and laghmon (a Chinese-style noodle and meat dish). The most common beverage is green tea (choy) and sometimes kefir (drinking yoghurt) is offered.


Tajikistan has the huge economic and trade potential. Here is the briefly information about the main sectors Tajikistan’s economy.

The sphere of the aluminum production is one of the most developed spheres of economy. The Tajik Aluminum Company (TALCO) is the main aluminum producer in the Republic of Tajikistan, an estimated capacity of which amounts to 517 000 tons of primary aluminum per year. The high quality of the products and its undeniable competitiveness were marked out with international awards. The products produced by this company were marked with the European quality label.

The Republic of Tajikistan has inexhaustible reserves of hydroelectric resources, occupying the 8th place in the world in terms of their specific reserves (per capita and area unit). Tajikistan has the potential to produce 527 billion kW/hour of electricity per year, but today only 6% of this potential is being used. Over the years of independence, the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan has been implementing raft of measures on the way to achieving one of the strategic goals, which is energy independence.

Mining industry today rely, on about 40 kinds of minerals are mined in the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan. About 100 deposits are in use. At the same time, more than 600 deposits of poly-chemical, rare and noble metals, which are partially prepared for industrial development, have been discovered and explored.

The country's interior is rich in zinc, lead, bismuth, molybdenum, tungsten, copper, gold, silver, antimony, mercury, fluorspar, tin, uranium, iron, manganese, sodium chloride, coal, magnesium and many other mineral resources that have a fairly high export potential.

Huge coal reserves in Tajikistan are a good opportunity to increase the volume of its extraction and processing for the purpose of improving the production of fuel, chemical and technological materials on an industrial scale. In this case, the rational use of coal can promote the development of the chemical industry and non-ferrous metallurgy in the country. 

Tajikistan also has a great touristic potential, the rich cultural and historical heritage of the Tajik people, a favorable geographical position, the originality of the local culture, the diversity of natural landscapes and unique natural monuments suggest the development of both domestic and inbound international tourism. Detail information about tourism potential of Tajikistan can be find by the following link: http://traveltajikistan.tj/.

In terms of agriculture it should be stated that, despite the fact that the climatic conditions of the republic are ideally suited for the cultivation of virtually all varieties of grain crops, the mountainous terrain yet still slightly narrows down the possibilities of the population in agricultural production. Cotton up to the present day continues to form the basis of Tajik export. That is why this agricultural crop occupies 1/3 of the entire ploughed area of the republic. Due to suitable agro-ecological conditions, in which 10 months of sunny days a year play an important role, and due to abundant water resources, one can annually produce in the country up to 400 thousand tons of high-quality cotton.  Fruit production in Tajikistan is one of the main branches of agriculture. Tajik fruits are highly valued in many countries of the world not only because of their ecological compatibility, but also excellent taste qualities. Unique climatic conditions of the republic allow to grow apricots, peaches, grapes, apples, pears, persimmons, pomegranate and citrus fruits. Vegetables and fruits occupy the second place in the republic, after cotton, by volume of export.

Currency of Tajikistan

Official currency is the Somoni. Notes are issued in denominations of 1, 3, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 Somoni. Coins (in Diram) of various denominations are also used.

Official exchange rate of currencies against Somoni (TJS)

on 19.03.2019











National Holiday

  • January 1 - New Year Day
  • March 8 - International Women's Day
  • March 21-24 – Navruz
  • May 1 - International Day of Solidarity
  • May 9 - Victory Day
  • June 27 - Day of National Unity
  • September 9 - Independence Day
  • November 6 - Constitution Day
  • There are other religious holidays with varying dates
  • Ramadan
  • Idi Qurbon